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  1. The purpose of this study was to determine whether advanced quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be deployed outside of large, research-oriented academic hospitals and into community care settings...

    Authors: John Virostko, Anna G. Sorace, Kalina P. Slavkova, Anum S. Kazerouni, Angela M. Jarrett, Julie C. DiCarlo, Stefanie Woodard, Sarah Avery, Boone Goodgame, Debra Patt and Thomas E. Yankeelov

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:110

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Arm and shoulder problems (ASP), including lymphedema, were common among women with breast cancer in high-income countries before sentinel lymph node biopsy became the standard of care. Although ASP impair qua...

    Authors: Pauline Boucheron, Angelica Anele, Annelle Zietsman, Moses Galukande, Groesbeck Parham, Leeya F. Pinder, Therese M.-L. Andersson, Benjamin O. Anderson, Milena Foerster, Joachim Schüz, Isabel dos Santos Silva and Valerie McCormack

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:109

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Research on psychosocial stress and risk of breast cancer has produced conflicting results. Few studies have assessed this relation by breast cancer subtype or specifically among Black women, who experience un...

    Authors: Lauren E. Barber, Gary R. Zirpoli, Yvette C. Cozier, Lynn Rosenberg, Jessica L. Petrick, Kimberly A. Bertrand and Julie R. Palmer

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:108

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease with multiple drivers and complex regulatory networks. Periostin (Postn) is a matricellular protein involved in a plethora of cancer types and other diseases. Po...

    Authors: Cédrik Labrèche, David P. Cook, John Abou-Hamad, Julia Pascoal, Benjamin R. Pryce, Khalid N. Al-Zahrani and Luc A. Sabourin

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:107

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Elevated mammographic breast density is a strong breast cancer risk factor with poorly understood etiology. Increased deposition of collagen, one of the main fibrous proteins present in breast stroma, has been...

    Authors: Clara Bodelon, Maeve Mullooly, Ruth M. Pfeiffer, Shaoqi Fan, Mustapha Abubakar, Petra Lenz, Pamela M. Vacek, Donald L. Weaver, Sally D. Herschorn, Jason M. Johnson, Brian L. Sprague, Stephen Hewitt, John Shepherd, Serghei Malkov, Patricia J. Keely, Kevin W. Eliceiri…

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:105

    Content type: Research article

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  6. In breast cancer, complex interactions between tumor cells and cells within the surrounding stroma, such as macrophages, are critical for tumor growth, progression, and therapeutic response. Recent studies hav...

    Authors: Emily A. Jesser, Nicholas J. Brady, Danielle N. Huggins, Patrice M. Witschen, Christine H. O’Connor and Kathryn L. Schwertfeger

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:104

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a transcription factor that facilitates the adaptation of cancer cells to hypoxic conditions and may be prognostic of breast cancer recurrence. We evaluated the associat...

    Authors: Lindsay J. Collin, Maret L. Maliniak, Deirdre P. Cronin-Fenton, Thomas P. Ahern, Kristina B. Christensen, Sinna P. Ulrichsen, Per Damkier, Stephen Hamilton-Dutoit, Rami Yacoub, Peer M. Christiansen, Henrik Toft Sørensen and Timothy L. Lash

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:103

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Accumulating evidence has attracted attention to the androgen receptor (AR) as a biomarker and therapeutic target in breast cancer. We hypothesized that AR activity within the tumor has clinical implications a...

    Authors: Toru Hanamura, Jessica L. Christenson, Kathleen I. O’Neill, Emmanuel Rosas, Nicole S. Spoelstra, Michelle M. Williams and Jennifer K. Richer

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:102

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Increased breast cancer screening over the past four decades has led to a substantial rise in the diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Although DCIS lesions precede invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), th...

    Authors: Ali S. Ropri, Rebecca S. DeVaux, Jonah Eng, Sridar V. Chittur and Jason I. Herschkowitz

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:101

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is incurable, with a 5-year survival rate of 28%. In the USA, more than 42,000 patients die from MBC every year. The most common type of breast cancer is estrogen receptor-positi...

    Authors: Sandra D. Scherer, Alessandra I. Riggio, Fadi Haroun, Yoko S. DeRose, H. Atakan Ekiz, Maihi Fujita, Jennifer Toner, Ling Zhao, Zheqi Li, Steffi Oesterreich, Ahmed A. Samatar and Alana L. Welm

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:100

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL)-high breast tumours have a high rate of pathological complete response (pCR) with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In our routine pathological diagnoses of biopsy specimens from p...

    Authors: Asumi Sakaguchi, Yoshiya Horimoto, Hiroko Onagi, Daiki Ikarashi, Takayuki Nakayama, Tetsuya Nakatsura, Hideo Shimizu, Kuniaki Kojima, Takashi Yao, Toshiharu Matsumoto, Kanako Ogura and Shigehisa Kitano

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:99

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Mechanical interactions between tumor cells and microenvironments are frequent phenomena during breast cancer progression, however, it is not well understood how these interactions affect Epithelial-to-Mesench...

    Authors: Kenneth F. Fuh, Robert D. Shepherd, Jessica S. Withell, Brayden K. Kooistra and Kristina D. Rinker

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:97

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Transcriptome sequencing has been broadly available in clinical studies. However, it remains a challenge to utilize these data effectively for clinical applications due to the high dimension of the data and th...

    Authors: Xiangning Chen, Daniel G. Chen, Zhongming Zhao, Justin M. Balko and Jingchun Chen

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:96

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer is commonly treated using endocrine therapies such as aromatase inhibitors which block synthesis of oestradiol, but the influence of this therapy on the immune c...

    Authors: Jody Hazlett, Virginia Niemi, Aziz Aiderus, Katelyn Powell, Lyn Wise, Roslyn Kemp and Anita K. Dunbier

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:95

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Advancements in cancer therapeutics have resulted in increases in cancer-related survival; however, there is a growing clinical dilemma. The current balancing of survival benefits and future cardiotoxic harms ...

    Authors: Lathan Liou, Stephen Kaptoge, Joe Dennis, Mitul Shah, Jonathan Tyrer, Michael Inouye, Douglas F. Easton and Paul D. P. Pharoah

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:94

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Cancer metastasis is a complex process involving the spread of malignant cells from a primary tumor to distal organs. Understanding this cascade at a mechanistic level could provide critical new insights into ...

    Authors: Anastasia A. Ionkina, Gabriela Balderrama-Gutierrez, Krystian J. Ibanez, Steve Huy D. Phan, Angelique N. Cortez, Ali Mortazavi and Jennifer A. Prescher

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:93

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Many women with breast cancer also have a high likelihood of cardiovascular mortality, and while there are several cardiovascular risk prediction models, none have been validated in a cohort of breast cancer p...

    Authors: Nicole M. Leoce, Zhezhen Jin, Rebecca D. Kehm, Janise M. Roh, Cecile A. Laurent, Lawrence H. Kushi and Mary Beth Terry

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:91

    Content type: Research article

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  18. During pregnancy, the mouse mammary ductal epithelium branches and grows into the surrounding stroma, requiring extensive extracellular matrix (ECM) and tissue remodelling. It therefore shows parallels to canc...

    Authors: Ayman M. Ibrahim, Alan Bilsland, Steffen Rickelt, Joanna S. Morris and Torsten Stein

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:90

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Telomere maintenance is crucial for the unlimited proliferation of cancer cells and essential for the “stemness” of multiple cancer cells. TAZ is more extensively expressed in triple negative breast cancers (T...

    Authors: Lu Yang, Bo Wang, Xinyan Jiao, Can Zhou, Su Chen, Xiaoqian Gao, Wei Sun, Shaoran Song, Juan Li, Jie Liu, Yaochun Wang and Peijun Liu

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:89

    Content type: Research article

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  20. This study evaluated the ability of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and 18F-Fluorothymidine (FLT) imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) to measure early response to endocrine therapy from baseline to just ...

    Authors: Perrin E. Romine, Lanell M. Peterson, Brenda F. Kurland, Darrin W. Byrd, Alena Novakova-Jiresova, Mark Muzi, Jennifer M. Specht, Robert K. Doot, Jeanne M. Link, Kenneth A. Krohn, Paul E. Kinahan, David A. Mankoff and Hannah M. Linden

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:88

    Content type: Research article

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  21. In MONARCH 2, abemaciclib plus fulvestrant significantly improved median progression-free survival (PFS, 16.4 vs 9.3 months, hazard ratio [HR] 0.553) and overall survival (OS, 46.7 vs 37.3 months; HR 0.757) co...

    Authors: Patrick Neven, Hope S. Rugo, Sara M. Tolaney, Hiroji Iwata, Masakazu Toi, Matthew P. Goetz, Peter A. Kaufman, Yi Lu, Nadine Haddad, Karla C. Hurt and George W. Sledge Jr.

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:87

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Given the high heterogeneity among breast tumors, associations between common germline genetic variants and survival that may exist within specific subgroups could go undetected in an unstratified set of breas...

    Authors: Anna Morra, Maria Escala-Garcia, Jonathan Beesley, Renske Keeman, Sander Canisius, Thomas U. Ahearn, Irene L. Andrulis, Hoda Anton-Culver, Volker Arndt, Paul L. Auer, Annelie Augustinsson, Laura E. Beane Freeman, Heiko Becher, Matthias W. Beckmann, Sabine Behrens, Stig E. Bojesen…

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:86

    Content type: Research article

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  23. In metastatic hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, ESR1 mutations are a common cause of acquired resistance to the backbone of therapy, estrogen deprivation by aromatase inhibition. How these mutations aff...

    Authors: Jamie O. Brett, Laura M. Spring, Aditya Bardia and Seth A. Wander

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:85

    Content type: Review

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  24. The development of anti-HER2 agents has been one of the most meaningful advancements in the management of metastatic breast cancer, significantly improving survival outcomes. Despite the efficacy of anti-HER2 ...

    Authors: Emanuela Ferraro, Joshua Z. Drago and Shanu Modi

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:84

    Content type: Review

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  25. The heterogeneity of the breast tumor microenvironment (TME) may contribute to the lack of durable responses to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB); however, mouse models to test this are currently lacking. Prope...

    Authors: Jessica Castrillon Lal, Madeline G. Townsend, Anita K. Mehta, Madisson Oliwa, Eric Miller, Alaba Sotayo, Emily Cheney, Elizabeth A. Mittendorf, Anthony Letai and Jennifer L. Guerriero

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:83

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Particular breast cancer subtypes pose a clinical challenge due to limited targeted therapeutic options and/or poor responses to the existing targeted therapies. While cell lines provide useful pre-clinical mo...

    Authors: Nicole J. Chew, Terry C. C. Lim Kam Sian, Elizabeth V. Nguyen, Sung-Young Shin, Jessica Yang, Mun N. Hui, Niantao Deng, Catriona A. McLean, Alana L. Welm, Elgene Lim, Peter Gregory, Tim Nottle, Tali Lang, Melissa Vereker, Gary Richardson, Genevieve Kerr…

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:82

    Content type: Research article

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  27. HER2-amplified breast cancer is a clinically defined subtype of breast cancer for which there are multiple viable targeted therapies. Resistance to these targeted therapies is a common problem, but the mechanisms...

    Authors: Joseph P. Garay, Rebecca Smith, Kaylyn Devlin, Daniel P. Hollern, Tiera Liby, Moqing Liu, Shanta Boddapati, Spencer S. Watson, Amanda Esch, Ting Zheng, Wallace Thompson, Darcie Babcock, Sunjong Kwon, Koei Chin, Laura Heiser, Joe W. Gray…

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:81

    Content type: Research article

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  28. African American women have the highest risk of breast cancer mortality compared to other racial groups. Differences in tumor characteristics have been implicated as a possible cause; however, the tumor microe...

    Authors: Gieira S. Jones, Katherine A. Hoadley, Linnea T. Olsson, Alina M. Hamilton, Arjun Bhattacharya, Erin L. Kirk, Heather J. Tipaldos, Jodie M. Fleming, Michael I. Love, Hazel B. Nichols, Andrew F. Olshan and Melissa A. Troester

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:80

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Diagnostic ionizing radiation is a risk factor for breast cancer (BC). BC risk increases with increased dose to the chest and decreases with increased age at exposure, with possible effect modification related...

    Authors: Maximiliano Ribeiro Guerra, Juliette Coignard, Séverine Eon-Marchais, Marie-Gabrielle Dondon, Dorothée Le Gal, Juana Beauvallet, Noura Mebirouk, Muriel Belotti, Olivier Caron, Marion Gauthier-Villars, Isabelle Coupier, Bruno Buecher, Alain Lortholary, Jean-Pierre Fricker, Paul Gesta, Catherine Noguès…

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:79

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone (EP) are implicated in breast cancer causation. A specific consequence of progesterone exposure is the expansion of the mammary stem cell (MSC) and luminal progen...

    Authors: Manish Ranjan, Oukseub Lee, Gannon Cottone, Elnaz Mirzaei Mehrabad, Benjamin T. Spike, Zexian Zeng, Shivangi Yadav, Robert Chatterton, J. Julie Kim, Susan E. Clare and Seema A. Khan

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:78

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway promoted by positive energy imbalance and insulin-like growth factors can be a mechanism by which obesity influences breast cancer risk. We evaluated the asso...

    Authors: Ting-Yuan David Cheng, Angela R. Omilian, Song Yao, Weizhou Zhang, Susmita Datta, Wiam Bshara, Rochelle Payne Ondracek, Warren Davis, Song Liu, Chi-Chen Hong, Elisa V. Bandera, Thaer Khoury and Christine B. Ambrosone

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:77

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Doxorubicin (Dox) is a widely used chemotherapy, but its effectiveness is limited by dose-dependent side effects. Although lower Dox doses reduce this risk, studies have reported higher recurrence of local dis...

    Authors: Samia Mohammed, Achraf A. Shamseddine, Benjamin Newcomb, Ronald S. Chavez, Tyler D. Panzner, Allen H. Lee, Daniel Canals, Chioma M. Okeoma, Christopher J. Clarke and Yusuf A. Hannun

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:76

    Content type: Research article

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  33. While mammographic density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer, little is known about its determinants, especially in young women. We applied targeted metabolomics to identify circulating me...

    Authors: Mathilde His, Martin Lajous, Liliana Gómez-Flores-Ramos, Adriana Monge, Laure Dossus, Vivian Viallon, Audrey Gicquiau, Carine Biessy, Marc J. Gunter and Sabina Rinaldi

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:75

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The Oncotype DX breast recurrence score has been introduced more than a decade ago to aid physicians in determining the need for systemic adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early-stage, estrogen receptor (...

    Authors: Evelien Schaafsma, Baoyi Zhang, Merit Schaafsma, Chun-Yip Tong, Lanjing Zhang and Chao Cheng

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:74

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The acquisition of oncogenic drivers is a critical feature of cancer progression. For some carcinomas, it is clear that certain genetic drivers occur early in neoplasia and others late. Why these drivers are s...

    Authors: Peipei Lu, Joseph Foley, Chunfang Zhu, Katherine McNamara, Korsuk Sirinukunwattana, Sujay Vennam, Sushama Varma, Hamid Fehri, Arunima Srivastava, Shirley Zhu, Jens Rittscher, Parag Mallick, Christina Curtis and Robert West

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:73

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Re-excision due to positive margins following breast-conserving surgery (BCS) negatively affects patient outcomes and healthcare costs. The inability to visualize margin involvement is a significant challenge ...

    Authors: Kathryn Ottolino-Perry, Anam Shahid, Stephanie DeLuca, Viktor Son, Mayleen Sukhram, Fannong Meng, Zhihui ( Amy) Liu, Sara Rapic, Nayana Thalanki Anantha, Shirley C. Wang, Emilie Chamma, Christopher Gibson, Philip J. Medeiros, Safa Majeed, Ashley Chu, Olivia Wignall…

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:72

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Adolescence and early adulthood has been identified as a critical time window for establishing breast cancer risk. Mammographic density is an independent risk factor for breast cancer that may be influenced by...

    Authors: Nichole A. Garzia, Kara Cushing-Haugen, Thomas W. Kensler, Rulla M. Tamimi and Holly R. Harris

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:71

    Content type: Research article

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  38. We investigated the associations of reproductive factors with the percentage of epithelium, stroma, and fat tissue in benign breast biopsy samples.

    Authors: Lusine Yaghjyan, Rebecca J. Austin-Datta, Hannah Oh, Yujing J. Heng, Adithya D. Vellal, Korsuk Sirinukunwattana, Gabrielle M. Baker, Laura C. Collins, Divya Murthy, Bernard Rosner and Rulla M. Tamimi

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:70

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Heterogeneity within the mouse mammary epithelium and potential lineage relationships have been recently explored by single-cell RNA profiling. To further understand how cellular diversity changes during mamma...

    Authors: Bhupinder Pal, Yunshun Chen, Michael J. G. Milevskiy, François Vaillant, Lexie Prokopuk, Caleb A. Dawson, Bianca D. Capaldo, Xiaoyu Song, Felicity Jackling, Paul Timpson, Geoffrey J. Lindeman, Gordon K. Smyth and Jane E. Visvader

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:69

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Few studies have investigated risk factor heterogeneity by molecular subtypes in indigenous African populations where prevalence of traditional breast cancer (BC) risk factors, genetic background, and environm...

    Authors: Shahin Sayed, Shaoqi Fan, Zahir Moloo, Ronald Wasike, Peter Bird, Mansoor Saleh, Asim Jamal Shaikh, Jonine D. Figueroa, Richard Naidoo, Francis W. Makokha, Kevin Gardner, Raymond Oigara, Faith Wambui Njoroge, Pumza Magangane, Miriam Mutebi, Rajendra Chauhan…

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:68

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Normal human breast tissues are a heterogeneous mix of epithelial and stromal subtypes in different cell states. Delineating the spectrum of cellular heterogeneity will provide new insights into normal cellula...

    Authors: Siru Virtanen, Reiner Schulte, John Stingl, Carlos Caldas and Mona Shehata

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:66

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in women. In particular, triple-negative BC (TNBC) has the highest rate of mortality due in large part...

    Authors: Katie A. Thies, Matthew W. Cole, Rachel E. Schafer, Jonathan M. Spehar, Dillon S. Richardson, Sarah A. Steck, Manjusri Das, Arthur W. Lian, Alo Ray, Reena Shakya, Sue E. Knoblaugh, Cynthia D. Timmers, Michael C. Ostrowski, Arnab Chakravarti, Gina M. Sizemore and Steven T. Sizemore

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:65

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Advanced breast cancer (BC) impact immune cells in the blood but whether such effects may reflect the presence of early BC and its therapeutic management remains elusive.

    Authors: Sarah Cattin, Benoît Fellay, Antonello Calderoni, Alexandre Christinat, Laura Negretti, Maira Biggiogero, Alberto Badellino, Anne-Lise Schneider, Pelagia Tsoutsou, Alessandra Franzetti Pellanda and Curzio Rüegg

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:64

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Breast cancer mortality is principally due to tumor recurrence, which can occur following extended periods of clinical remission that may last decades. While clinical latency has been postulated to reflect the...

    Authors: Jason R. Ruth, Dhruv K. Pant, Tien-chi Pan, Hans E. Seidel, Sanjeethan C. Baksh, Blaine A. Keister, Rita Singh, Christopher J. Sterner, Suzanne J. Bakewell, Susan E. Moody, George K. Belka and Lewis A. Chodosh

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:63

    Content type: Research article

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  45. In contrast to developed countries, breast cancer in China is characterized by a rapidly escalating incidence rate in the past two decades, lower survival rate, and vast geographic variation. However, there is...

    Authors: Yuting Han, Jun Lv, Canqing Yu, Yu Guo, Zheng Bian, Yizhen Hu, Ling Yang, Yiping Chen, Huaidong Du, Fangyuan Zhao, Wanqing Wen, Xiao-Ou Shu, Yongbing Xiang, Yu-Tang Gao, Wei Zheng, Hong Guo…

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:62

    Content type: Research article

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