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  1. Mechanical interactions between tumor cells and microenvironments are frequent phenomena during breast cancer progression, however, it is not well understood how these interactions affect Epithelial-to-Mesench...

    Authors: Kenneth F. Fuh, Robert D. Shepherd, Jessica S. Withell, Brayden K. Kooistra and Kristina D. Rinker

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:97

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Transcriptome sequencing has been broadly available in clinical studies. However, it remains a challenge to utilize these data effectively for clinical applications due to the high dimension of the data and th...

    Authors: Xiangning Chen, Daniel G. Chen, Zhongming Zhao, Justin M. Balko and Jingchun Chen

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:96

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer is commonly treated using endocrine therapies such as aromatase inhibitors which block synthesis of oestradiol, but the influence of this therapy on the immune c...

    Authors: Jody Hazlett, Virginia Niemi, Aziz Aiderus, Katelyn Powell, Lyn Wise, Roslyn Kemp and Anita K. Dunbier

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:95

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Advancements in cancer therapeutics have resulted in increases in cancer-related survival; however, there is a growing clinical dilemma. The current balancing of survival benefits and future cardiotoxic harms ...

    Authors: Lathan Liou, Stephen Kaptoge, Joe Dennis, Mitul Shah, Jonathan Tyrer, Michael Inouye, Douglas F. Easton and Paul D. P. Pharoah

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:94

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Cancer metastasis is a complex process involving the spread of malignant cells from a primary tumor to distal organs. Understanding this cascade at a mechanistic level could provide critical new insights into ...

    Authors: Anastasia A. Ionkina, Gabriela Balderrama-Gutierrez, Krystian J. Ibanez, Steve Huy D. Phan, Angelique N. Cortez, Ali Mortazavi and Jennifer A. Prescher

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:93

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Many women with breast cancer also have a high likelihood of cardiovascular mortality, and while there are several cardiovascular risk prediction models, none have been validated in a cohort of breast cancer p...

    Authors: Nicole M. Leoce, Zhezhen Jin, Rebecca D. Kehm, Janise M. Roh, Cecile A. Laurent, Lawrence H. Kushi and Mary Beth Terry

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:91

    Content type: Research article

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  7. During pregnancy, the mouse mammary ductal epithelium branches and grows into the surrounding stroma, requiring extensive extracellular matrix (ECM) and tissue remodelling. It therefore shows parallels to canc...

    Authors: Ayman M. Ibrahim, Alan Bilsland, Steffen Rickelt, Joanna S. Morris and Torsten Stein

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:90

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Telomere maintenance is crucial for the unlimited proliferation of cancer cells and essential for the “stemness” of multiple cancer cells. TAZ is more extensively expressed in triple negative breast cancers (T...

    Authors: Lu Yang, Bo Wang, Xinyan Jiao, Can Zhou, Su Chen, Xiaoqian Gao, Wei Sun, Shaoran Song, Juan Li, Jie Liu, Yaochun Wang and Peijun Liu

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:89

    Content type: Research article

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  9. This study evaluated the ability of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and 18F-Fluorothymidine (FLT) imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) to measure early response to endocrine therapy from baseline to just ...

    Authors: Perrin E. Romine, Lanell M. Peterson, Brenda F. Kurland, Darrin W. Byrd, Alena Novakova-Jiresova, Mark Muzi, Jennifer M. Specht, Robert K. Doot, Jeanne M. Link, Kenneth A. Krohn, Paul E. Kinahan, David A. Mankoff and Hannah M. Linden

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:88

    Content type: Research article

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  10. In MONARCH 2, abemaciclib plus fulvestrant significantly improved median progression-free survival (PFS, 16.4 vs 9.3 months, hazard ratio [HR] 0.553) and overall survival (OS, 46.7 vs 37.3 months; HR 0.757) co...

    Authors: Patrick Neven, Hope S. Rugo, Sara M. Tolaney, Hiroji Iwata, Masakazu Toi, Matthew P. Goetz, Peter A. Kaufman, Yi Lu, Nadine Haddad, Karla C. Hurt and George W. Sledge Jr.

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:87

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Given the high heterogeneity among breast tumors, associations between common germline genetic variants and survival that may exist within specific subgroups could go undetected in an unstratified set of breas...

    Authors: Anna Morra, Maria Escala-Garcia, Jonathan Beesley, Renske Keeman, Sander Canisius, Thomas U. Ahearn, Irene L. Andrulis, Hoda Anton-Culver, Volker Arndt, Paul L. Auer, Annelie Augustinsson, Laura E. Beane Freeman, Heiko Becher, Matthias W. Beckmann, Sabine Behrens, Stig E. Bojesen…

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:86

    Content type: Research article

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  12. In metastatic hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, ESR1 mutations are a common cause of acquired resistance to the backbone of therapy, estrogen deprivation by aromatase inhibition. How these mutations aff...

    Authors: Jamie O. Brett, Laura M. Spring, Aditya Bardia and Seth A. Wander

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:85

    Content type: Review

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  13. The development of anti-HER2 agents has been one of the most meaningful advancements in the management of metastatic breast cancer, significantly improving survival outcomes. Despite the efficacy of anti-HER2 ...

    Authors: Emanuela Ferraro, Joshua Z. Drago and Shanu Modi

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:84

    Content type: Review

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  14. The heterogeneity of the breast tumor microenvironment (TME) may contribute to the lack of durable responses to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB); however, mouse models to test this are currently lacking. Prope...

    Authors: Jessica Castrillon Lal, Madeline G. Townsend, Anita K. Mehta, Madisson Oliwa, Eric Miller, Alaba Sotayo, Emily Cheney, Elizabeth A. Mittendorf, Anthony Letai and Jennifer L. Guerriero

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:83

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Particular breast cancer subtypes pose a clinical challenge due to limited targeted therapeutic options and/or poor responses to the existing targeted therapies. While cell lines provide useful pre-clinical mo...

    Authors: Nicole J. Chew, Terry C. C. Lim Kam Sian, Elizabeth V. Nguyen, Sung-Young Shin, Jessica Yang, Mun N. Hui, Niantao Deng, Catriona A. McLean, Alana L. Welm, Elgene Lim, Peter Gregory, Tim Nottle, Tali Lang, Melissa Vereker, Gary Richardson, Genevieve Kerr…

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:82

    Content type: Research article

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  16. HER2-amplified breast cancer is a clinically defined subtype of breast cancer for which there are multiple viable targeted therapies. Resistance to these targeted therapies is a common problem, but the mechanisms...

    Authors: Joseph P. Garay, Rebecca Smith, Kaylyn Devlin, Daniel P. Hollern, Tiera Liby, Moqing Liu, Shanta Boddapati, Spencer S. Watson, Amanda Esch, Ting Zheng, Wallace Thompson, Darcie Babcock, Sunjong Kwon, Koei Chin, Laura Heiser, Joe W. Gray…

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:81

    Content type: Research article

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  17. African American women have the highest risk of breast cancer mortality compared to other racial groups. Differences in tumor characteristics have been implicated as a possible cause; however, the tumor microe...

    Authors: Gieira S. Jones, Katherine A. Hoadley, Linnea T. Olsson, Alina M. Hamilton, Arjun Bhattacharya, Erin L. Kirk, Heather J. Tipaldos, Jodie M. Fleming, Michael I. Love, Hazel B. Nichols, Andrew F. Olshan and Melissa A. Troester

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:80

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Diagnostic ionizing radiation is a risk factor for breast cancer (BC). BC risk increases with increased dose to the chest and decreases with increased age at exposure, with possible effect modification related...

    Authors: Maximiliano Ribeiro Guerra, Juliette Coignard, Séverine Eon-Marchais, Marie-Gabrielle Dondon, Dorothée Le Gal, Juana Beauvallet, Noura Mebirouk, Muriel Belotti, Olivier Caron, Marion Gauthier-Villars, Isabelle Coupier, Bruno Buecher, Alain Lortholary, Jean-Pierre Fricker, Paul Gesta, Catherine Noguès…

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:79

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone (EP) are implicated in breast cancer causation. A specific consequence of progesterone exposure is the expansion of the mammary stem cell (MSC) and luminal progen...

    Authors: Manish Ranjan, Oukseub Lee, Gannon Cottone, Elnaz Mirzaei Mehrabad, Benjamin T. Spike, Zexian Zeng, Shivangi Yadav, Robert Chatterton, J. Julie Kim, Susan E. Clare and Seema A. Khan

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:78

    Content type: Research article

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  20. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway promoted by positive energy imbalance and insulin-like growth factors can be a mechanism by which obesity influences breast cancer risk. We evaluated the asso...

    Authors: Ting-Yuan David Cheng, Angela R. Omilian, Song Yao, Weizhou Zhang, Susmita Datta, Wiam Bshara, Rochelle Payne Ondracek, Warren Davis, Song Liu, Chi-Chen Hong, Elisa V. Bandera, Thaer Khoury and Christine B. Ambrosone

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:77

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Doxorubicin (Dox) is a widely used chemotherapy, but its effectiveness is limited by dose-dependent side effects. Although lower Dox doses reduce this risk, studies have reported higher recurrence of local dis...

    Authors: Samia Mohammed, Achraf A. Shamseddine, Benjamin Newcomb, Ronald S. Chavez, Tyler D. Panzner, Allen H. Lee, Daniel Canals, Chioma M. Okeoma, Christopher J. Clarke and Yusuf A. Hannun

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:76

    Content type: Research article

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  22. While mammographic density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer, little is known about its determinants, especially in young women. We applied targeted metabolomics to identify circulating me...

    Authors: Mathilde His, Martin Lajous, Liliana Gómez-Flores-Ramos, Adriana Monge, Laure Dossus, Vivian Viallon, Audrey Gicquiau, Carine Biessy, Marc J. Gunter and Sabina Rinaldi

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:75

    Content type: Research article

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  23. The Oncotype DX breast recurrence score has been introduced more than a decade ago to aid physicians in determining the need for systemic adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early-stage, estrogen receptor (...

    Authors: Evelien Schaafsma, Baoyi Zhang, Merit Schaafsma, Chun-Yip Tong, Lanjing Zhang and Chao Cheng

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:74

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The acquisition of oncogenic drivers is a critical feature of cancer progression. For some carcinomas, it is clear that certain genetic drivers occur early in neoplasia and others late. Why these drivers are s...

    Authors: Peipei Lu, Joseph Foley, Chunfang Zhu, Katherine McNamara, Korsuk Sirinukunwattana, Sujay Vennam, Sushama Varma, Hamid Fehri, Arunima Srivastava, Shirley Zhu, Jens Rittscher, Parag Mallick, Christina Curtis and Robert West

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:73

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Re-excision due to positive margins following breast-conserving surgery (BCS) negatively affects patient outcomes and healthcare costs. The inability to visualize margin involvement is a significant challenge ...

    Authors: Kathryn Ottolino-Perry, Anam Shahid, Stephanie DeLuca, Viktor Son, Mayleen Sukhram, Fannong Meng, Zhihui ( Amy) Liu, Sara Rapic, Nayana Thalanki Anantha, Shirley C. Wang, Emilie Chamma, Christopher Gibson, Philip J. Medeiros, Safa Majeed, Ashley Chu, Olivia Wignall…

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:72

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Adolescence and early adulthood has been identified as a critical time window for establishing breast cancer risk. Mammographic density is an independent risk factor for breast cancer that may be influenced by...

    Authors: Nichole A. Garzia, Kara Cushing-Haugen, Thomas W. Kensler, Rulla M. Tamimi and Holly R. Harris

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:71

    Content type: Research article

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  27. We investigated the associations of reproductive factors with the percentage of epithelium, stroma, and fat tissue in benign breast biopsy samples.

    Authors: Lusine Yaghjyan, Rebecca J. Austin-Datta, Hannah Oh, Yujing J. Heng, Adithya D. Vellal, Korsuk Sirinukunwattana, Gabrielle M. Baker, Laura C. Collins, Divya Murthy, Bernard Rosner and Rulla M. Tamimi

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:70

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Heterogeneity within the mouse mammary epithelium and potential lineage relationships have been recently explored by single-cell RNA profiling. To further understand how cellular diversity changes during mamma...

    Authors: Bhupinder Pal, Yunshun Chen, Michael J. G. Milevskiy, François Vaillant, Lexie Prokopuk, Caleb A. Dawson, Bianca D. Capaldo, Xiaoyu Song, Felicity Jackling, Paul Timpson, Geoffrey J. Lindeman, Gordon K. Smyth and Jane E. Visvader

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:69

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Few studies have investigated risk factor heterogeneity by molecular subtypes in indigenous African populations where prevalence of traditional breast cancer (BC) risk factors, genetic background, and environm...

    Authors: Shahin Sayed, Shaoqi Fan, Zahir Moloo, Ronald Wasike, Peter Bird, Mansoor Saleh, Asim Jamal Shaikh, Jonine D. Figueroa, Richard Naidoo, Francis W. Makokha, Kevin Gardner, Raymond Oigara, Faith Wambui Njoroge, Pumza Magangane, Miriam Mutebi, Rajendra Chauhan…

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:68

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Normal human breast tissues are a heterogeneous mix of epithelial and stromal subtypes in different cell states. Delineating the spectrum of cellular heterogeneity will provide new insights into normal cellula...

    Authors: Siru Virtanen, Reiner Schulte, John Stingl, Carlos Caldas and Mona Shehata

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:66

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in women. In particular, triple-negative BC (TNBC) has the highest rate of mortality due in large part...

    Authors: Katie A. Thies, Matthew W. Cole, Rachel E. Schafer, Jonathan M. Spehar, Dillon S. Richardson, Sarah A. Steck, Manjusri Das, Arthur W. Lian, Alo Ray, Reena Shakya, Sue E. Knoblaugh, Cynthia D. Timmers, Michael C. Ostrowski, Arnab Chakravarti, Gina M. Sizemore and Steven T. Sizemore

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:65

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Advanced breast cancer (BC) impact immune cells in the blood but whether such effects may reflect the presence of early BC and its therapeutic management remains elusive.

    Authors: Sarah Cattin, Benoît Fellay, Antonello Calderoni, Alexandre Christinat, Laura Negretti, Maira Biggiogero, Alberto Badellino, Anne-Lise Schneider, Pelagia Tsoutsou, Alessandra Franzetti Pellanda and Curzio Rüegg

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:64

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Breast cancer mortality is principally due to tumor recurrence, which can occur following extended periods of clinical remission that may last decades. While clinical latency has been postulated to reflect the...

    Authors: Jason R. Ruth, Dhruv K. Pant, Tien-chi Pan, Hans E. Seidel, Sanjeethan C. Baksh, Blaine A. Keister, Rita Singh, Christopher J. Sterner, Suzanne J. Bakewell, Susan E. Moody, George K. Belka and Lewis A. Chodosh

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:63

    Content type: Research article

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  34. In contrast to developed countries, breast cancer in China is characterized by a rapidly escalating incidence rate in the past two decades, lower survival rate, and vast geographic variation. However, there is...

    Authors: Yuting Han, Jun Lv, Canqing Yu, Yu Guo, Zheng Bian, Yizhen Hu, Ling Yang, Yiping Chen, Huaidong Du, Fangyuan Zhao, Wanqing Wen, Xiao-Ou Shu, Yongbing Xiang, Yu-Tang Gao, Wei Zheng, Hong Guo…

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:62

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The immune microenvironment (IME) of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) and its modulation by neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) remain to be fully characterized. Our current study aims to evaluate NACT-induc...

    Authors: Victor Sarradin, Amélie Lusque, Thomas Filleron, Florence Dalenc and Camille Franchet

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:61

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Although the incidence of positive resection margins in breast-conserving surgery has decreased, both incomplete resection and unnecessary large resections still occur. This is especially the case in the surgi...

    Authors: Lisanne L. de Boer, Esther Kho, Koen K. Van de Vijver, Marie-Jeanne T. F. D. Vranken Peeters, Frederieke van Duijnhoven, Benno H. W. Hendriks, Henricus J. C. M. Sterenborg and Theo J. M. Ruers

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:59

    Content type: Research article

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  37. DNA methylation alterations have similar patterns in normal aging tissue and in cancer. In this study, we investigated breast tissue-specific age-related DNA methylation alterations and used those methylation ...

    Authors: Shoghag Panjarian, Jozef Madzo, Kelsey Keith, Carolyn M. Slater, Carmen Sapienza, Jaroslav Jelinek and Jean-Pierre J. Issa

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:58

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Endocrine therapies targeting estrogen signaling have significantly improved breast cancer (BC) patient survival, although 40% of ERα-positive BCs do not respond to those therapies. Aside from genomic signalin...

    Authors: Julien Jacquemetton, Loay Kassem, Coralie Poulard, Ahmed Dahmani, Ludmilla De Plater, Elodie Montaudon, Laura Sourd, Ludivine Morisset, Rania El Botty, Sophie Chateau-Joubert, Sophie Vacher, Ivan Bièche, Isabelle Treilleux, Olivier Trédan, Elisabetta Marangoni and Muriel Le Romancer

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:57

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is a serious problem for patients as it metastasizes, decreasing 5-year patient survival from > 95 to ~ 27%. The breast tumor microenvironment (TME) is often saturated with proi...

    Authors: Simion C. Dinca, Daniel Greiner, Keren Weidenfeld, Laura Bond, Dalit Barkan and Cheryl L. Jorcyk

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:56

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Approximately 5–10% of HER2-positive breast cancers can be defined by low expression of the Ste20-like kinase, SLK, and high expression of SOX10. Our lab has observed that genetic deletion of SLK results in the i...

    Authors: Khalid N. Al-Zahrani, John Abou-Hamad, Julia Pascoal, Cédrik Labrèche, Brennan Garland and Luc A. Sabourin

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:55

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:60

  41. Endocrine therapy remains the mainstay of treatment for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. Constitutively active mutations in the ligand binding domain of ERα render tumors resistant to endocrine ...

    Authors: Muriel Lainé, Sean W. Fanning, Ya-Fang Chang, Bradley Green, Marianne E. Greene, Barry Komm, Justyna D. Kurleto, Linda Phung and Geoffrey L. Greene

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:54

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. Biglycan is a proteoglycan found in the extracellular matrix. We have previously shown that biglycan is secreted from tumor endothelial cells and induces tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. However, the functio...

    Authors: Li Cong, Nako Maishi, Dorcas A. Annan, Marian F. Young, Hirofumi Morimoto, Masahiro Morimoto, Jin-Min Nam, Yasuhiro Hida and Kyoko Hida

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:51

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. We identified a rare missense germline mutation in BARD1 (c.403G>A or p.Asp135Asn) as pathogenic using integrated genomics and transcriptomics profiling of germline and tumor samples from an early-onset triple-ne...

    Authors: Yuanting Zheng, Bingying Li, Dejing Pan, Jun Cao, Jian Zhang, Xiaolin Wang, Xiangnan Li, Wanwan Hou, Ding Bao, Luyao Ren, Jingcheng Yang, Shangzi Wang, Yangyang Qiu, Fei Zhou, Zhiwei Liu, Sibo Zhu…

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:53

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  44. Early prediction of tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is crucial for optimal treatment and improved outcome in breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of sh...

    Authors: Juanjuan Gu, Eric C. Polley, Max Denis, Jodi M. Carter, Sandhya Pruthi, Adriana V. Gregory, Judy C. Boughey, Robert T. Fazzio, Mostafa Fatemi and Azra Alizad

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:52

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. Authors: Antonella Ciabattoni, Fabiana Gregucci, Gerd Fastner, Silvio Cavuto, Antonio Spera, Stefano Drago, Ingrid Ziegler, Maria Alessandra Mirri, Rita Consorti and Felix Sedlmayer

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:50

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:46

  46. Mammographic breast density (MBD) and benign breast disease (BBD) are two of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer. Understanding trends in MBD by age and parity in women with BBD is essential to the cl...

    Authors: Laura L. Reimers, Mandy Goldberg, Parisa Tehranifar, Karin B. Michels, Barbara A. Cohn, Julie D. Flom, Ying Wei, Piera Cirillo and Mary Beth Terry

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:49

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  47. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Gerardo Gatti, Courtney Betts, Darío Rocha, Maribel Nicola, Verónica Grupe, Cecilia Ditada, Nicolas G. Nuñez, Emiliano Roselli, Paula Araya, Jeremías Dutto, Lucia Boffelli, Elmer Fernández, Lisa M. Coussens and Mariana Maccioni

    Citation: Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:48

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Breast Cancer Research 2021 23:40

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