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Table 1 Demographics of the training set (cancers detected at first screen on entry to the PROCAS study) and validation set (cancers detected at a subsequent screen or between screening rounds)

From: A novel and fully automated mammographic texture analysis for risk prediction: results from two case-control studies

  Training set   Validation set  
Controls Cases P value Controls Cases P value
N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
Age at consent (years)   0.9994   0.9997
 <50 44 (6) 16 (6)   46 (5) 16 (5)  
 50–54 200 (25) 65 (25)   193 (21) 64 (20)  
 55–-59 150 (19) 51 (19)   164 (18) 58 (18)  
 60–64 172 (22) 57 (22)   286 (31) 96 (30)  
 65–69 166 (21) 57 (22)   195 (21) 67 (21)  
 70+ 55 (7) 18 (7)   47 (5) 16 (5)  
HRT use   0.2234   0.9646
 Unknown 11 (1) 7 (3)   22 (2) 6 (2)  
 Never 473 (60) 171 (65)   475 (51) 165 (52)  
 Previous 262 (33) 72 (27)   329 (35) 110 (35)  
 Current 41 (5) 14 (5)   105 (11) 36 (11)  
BMI (kg/m2)   0.9797   0.9408
 Unknown -   -    -   1 (0)  
 <25 241 (31) 80 (30)   335 (36) 117 (37)  
 25–29 289 (37) 96 (36)   341 (37) 113 (36)  
 ≥30 257 (33) 88 (33)   255 (27) 86 (27)  
Menopausal status   0.9914   0.9887
 Unknown 16 (2) 7 (3)   32 (3) 12 (4)  
 Perimenopausal 94 (12) 32 (12)   134 (14) 46 (15)  
 Postmenopausal 591 (75) 196 (74)   698 (75) 237 (75)  
 Premenopausal 86 (11) 29 (11)   67 (7) 22 (7)  
Ethnic origin   0.0411   0.2229
 Other/unknown 38 (5) 22 (8)   81 (9) 35 (11)  
 White 749 (95) 242 (92)   850 (91) 282 (89)  
Parity   0.8143   0.0351
 Unknown -   -    1 (0) 4 (1)  
 Nulliparous 97 (12) 34 (13)   90 (10) 44 (14)  
 Parous 690 (88) 230 (87)   840 (90) 269 (85)  
Tyrer-Cuzick (10-year risk, %) (median, Q1–Q3) 2.73 (2.19–3.60) 2.82 (2.29–3.88) 0.0028 2.68 (2.09–3.55) 2.91 (2.24–4.03) <0.0001
Volumetric PD (median, Q1–Q3) 5.34 (4.06–7.35) 5.88 (4.62–8.55) 0.0003 4.73 (3.50–6.92) 5.31 (3.79–7.57) 0.0041
  1. P values, from likelihood-ratio chi-square tests, indicate whether there are significant difference between cases and controls
  2. HRT hormone replacement therapy, BMI body mass index, Q1 25th percentile, Q3 75th percentile, PD percent density