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Table 4 Lifetime alcohol intake (g/day) and breast cancer risk in Japanese Americans, stratified by smoking, intake of soy and folate, body mass index (BMI), and use of menopausal hormones (postmenopausal women)

From: Alcohol and breast cancer risk among Asian-American women in Los Angeles County

Alcohol (g/day) Cases/control Adjusted ORa (95% CI) Cases/control Adjusted ORa (95% CI) P interaction
  Never smoked Ever smoked  
No 273/240 1.00 106/134 1.00  
> 0 to ≤ 5.0 49/46 0.87 (0.52-1.43) 54/43 2.09 (1.16-3.77)  
> 5 23/20 1.33 (0.65-2.73) 39/28 2.46 (1.26-4.80)  
Per 5 g/day   1.06 (0.77-1.44)   1.64 (1.18-2.26)  
P trend   0.73   0.003 0.017
  Low soy intakeb High soy intakeb  
No 126/105 1.00 253/269 1.00  
> 0 to ≤ 5.0 31/23 1.39 (0.65-2.94) 72/66 1.18 (0.77-1.80)  
> 5 19/11 1.01 (0.37-2.72) 43/37 1.49 (0.88-2.55)  
Per 5 g/day   1.10 (0.70-1.71)   1.21 (0.95-1.55)  
P trend   0.69   0.13 0.96
  ≤ Median folate (≤ 190 mg/1,000 Kcal)c > Median folate (> 190 mg/1,000 Kcal)  
No 179/168 1.00 200/206 1.00  
> 0 to ≤ 5.0 54/49 1.07 (0.65-1.76) 49/40 1.49 (0.84-2.64)  
> 5 28/29 0.92 (0.48-1.75) 34/19 2.31 (1.15-4.62)  
Per 5 g/day   0.98 (0.73-1.32)   1.51 (1.10-2.08)  
P trend   0.92   0.011 0.75
  ≤ Median BMI (≤ 22.3 kg/m2)d > Median BMI (> 22.3 kg/m2)  
No 155/172 1.00 224/202 1.00  
> 0 to ≤ 5.0 51/46 1.08 (0.64-1.85) 52/43 1.82 (1.06-3.12)  
> 5 36/22 2.36 (1.20-4.66) 26/26 0.99 (0.50-1.94)  
Per 5 g/day   1.42 (1.04-1.93)   1.15 (0.84-1.56)  
P trend   0.027   0.39 0.84
  Hormone therapy (HT) nonusers HT users (former + current users)  
No 121/108 1.00 136/115 1.00  
> 0 to ≤ 5.0 31/17 1.97 (0.93-4.16) 24/11 2.28 (0.95-5.43)  
> 5 18/9 2.83 (1.04-7.67) 19/11 1.63 (0.68-3.94)  
Per 5 g/day   1.75 (1.11-2.76)   1.42 (0.93-2.15)  
P trend   0.016   0.10 0.34
  1. aAdjusted for age, birthplace and residence years in the US among non-US born, education, interviewer, age at menarche, menopausal status, age at menopause, current BMI, parity, total calorie, family history of breast cancer and physical activity, intake of soy, and green tea. bLow soy intake is defined as low intake during both adolescence and adult life or low intake during adolescence and high soy intake during adult life; high soy intake is defined as high soy intake during both adolescence and adult life or high intake during adolescence and low intake during adult life. c OSimilar patterns of results by tertiles of folate were found: ORs per 5 g/day of alcohol by tertiles of folate intake (≤ 170 mg/1,000 Kcal, > 170 to ≤ 220, > 220 mg/1,000 Kcal) were 1.09 (P trend = 0.65), 1.27 (P trend = 0.20), and 1.52 (P trend = 0.054), respectively. dSimilar patterns of results by tertiles of BMI were found: ORs per 5 g/day of alcohol intake by tertiles of BMI (≤ 21.5, > 21.5 to ≤ 24, > 24 kg/m2) were 1.34 (P trend = 0.09), 1.40 (P trend = 0.12), and 0.89 (P trend = 0.56), respectively.